Cargo aircraft refers to an airplane designed principally for use in carrying goods or freight, either for commercial use or military. Cargo aircraft may be classified according to its range, i.e. short-, medium- and long-range, with different sizes being utilized.

Features of cargo aircraft vary according to their purpose. Some cargo planes have been developed exclusively for use by the military, whilst others have been developed for commercial transport. A substantial number of cargo aircraft are modified airliners whilst others have developed from military transport airplanes.